Versionomy is a generalized version number library. It provides tools to represent, manipulate, parse, and compare version numbers in the wide variety of versioning schemes in use.
This document provides a step-by-step introduction to most of the features of Versionomy.
Version numbers done right?¶ ↑
Let's be honest. Version numbers are not easy to deal with, and very seldom seem to be done right.
Imagine the common case of testing the Ruby version. Most of us, if we need to worry about Ruby VM compatibility, will do something like:
do_something if RUBY_VERSION >= "1.8.7"
Treating the version number as a string works well enough, until it doesn't. The above code will do the right thing for Ruby 1.8.6, 1.8.7, 1.8.8, and 1.9.1. But it will fail if the version is “1.8.10” or “1.10”. And properly interpreting “prerelease” version syntax such as “1.9.2-preview1”? Forget it.
There are a few version number classes out there that do better than treating version numbers as plain strings. One example is Gem::Version, part of the RubyGems package. This class separates the version into fields and lets you manipulate and compare version numbers more robustly. It even provides limited support for “prerelease” versions through using string- valued fields– although it's a hack, and a bit of a clumsy one at that. A prerelease version has to be represented like this: “1.9.2.b.1” or “1.9.2.preview.2”. Wouldn't it be nice to be able to parse more typical version number formats such as “1.9.2b1” and “1.9.2-preview2”? Wouldn't it be nice for a version like “1.9.2b1” to understand that it's a “beta” version and behave accordingly?
With Versionomy, you can do all this and more. Here's how…
Creating version numbers¶ ↑
Creating a version number object in Versionomy is as simple as passing a string to a factory. Versionomy understands a wide range of version number formats out of the box.
v1 = Versionomy.parse('1.2') # Simple version numbers v2 = Versionomy.parse('184.108.40.206') # Up to four fields supported v3 = Versionomy.parse('1.9b3') # Alpha and beta versions v4 = Versionomy.parse('1.9rc2') # Release candidates too v5 = Versionomy.parse('1.9.2-preview2') # Preview releases v6 = Versionomy.parse('1.9.2-p6') # Patchlevels v7 = Versionomy.parse('v2.0 beta 6.1') # Many alternative syntaxes
You can also construct version numbers manually by passing a hash of field values. See the next section for a discussion of fields.
v1 = Versionomy.create(:major => 1, :minor => 2) # creates version "1.2" v2 = Versionomy.create(:major => 1, :minor => 9, :release_type => :beta, :beta_version => 3) # creates version "1.9b3"
The current ruby virtual machine version can be obtained using:
v1 = Versionomy.ruby_version
Many other libraries include their version as a string constant in their main namespace module. Versionomy provides a quick facility to attempt to extract the version of a library:
require 'nokogiri' v1 = Versionomy.version_of(Nokogiri)
Version number fields¶ ↑
A version number is a collection of fields in a particular order. Standard version numbers have the following fields:
The first four fields correspond to the four numeric fields of the version number. E.g. version numbers have the form “major.minor.tiny.tiny2”. Trailing fields that have a zero value may be omitted from a string representation, but are still present in the Versionomy::Value object.
The fifth field is special. Its value is one of the following symbols:
The value of the :release_type field determines which other fields are available in the version number. If the :release_type is :development, then the two fields :development_version and :development_minor are available. Similarly, if :release_type is :alpha, then the two fields :alpha_version and :alpha_minor are available, and so on. If :release_type is :final, that exposes the two fields :patchlevel and :patchlevel_minor.
You can query a field value simply by calling a method on the value:
v1 = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') v1.major # => 1 v1.minor # => 2 v1.tiny # => 0 v1.tiny2 # => 0 v1.release_type # => :beta v1.beta_version # => 3 v1.beta_minor # => 0 v1.release_candidate_version # raises NoMethodError
The above fields are merely the standard fields that Versionomy provides out of the box. Versionomy also provides advanced users the ability to define new version “schemas” with any number of different fields and different semantics. See the RDocs for Versionomy::Schema for more information.
Version number calculations¶ ↑
Version numbers can be compared (and thus sorted). Versionomy knows how to handle prerelease versions and patchlevels correctly. It also compares the semantic value so even if versions use an alternate syntax, they will be compared correctly. Each of these expressions evaluates to true:
Versionomy.parse('1.2') < Versionomy.parse('1.10') Versionomy.parse('1.2') > Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') > Versionomy.parse('1.2a4') Versionomy.parse('1.2') < Versionomy.parse('1.2-p1') Versionomy.parse('1.2') == Versionomy.parse('1.2-p0') Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') == Versionomy.parse('1.2.0-beta3')
Versionomy automatically converts (parses) strings when comparing with a version number, so you could even evaluate these:
Versionomy.parse('1.2') < '1.10' Versionomy::VERSION > '0.2'
The Versionomy API provides various methods for manipulating fields such as bumping, resetting to default, and changing to an arbitrary value. Version numbers are always immutable, so changing a version number always produces a copy. Below are a few examples. See the RDocs for the class Versionomy::Value for more details.
v_orig = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') v1 = v_orig.change(:beta_version => 4) # creates version "1.2b4" v2 = v_orig.change(:tiny => 4) # creates version "1.2.4b3" v3 = v_orig.bump(:minor) # creates version "1.3" v4 = v_orig.bump(:release_type) # creates version "1.2rc1" v5 = v_orig.reset(:minor) # creates version "1.0"
A few more common calculations are also provided:
v_orig = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') v_orig.prerelease? # => true v6 = v_orig.release # creates version "1.2"
Parsing and unparsing¶ ↑
Versionomy's parsing and unparsing services appear simple from the outside, but a closer look reveals some sophisticated features. Parsing is as simple as passing a string to Versionomy#parse, and unparsing is as simple as calling Versionomy::Value#unparse or Versionomy::Value#to_s.
v = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') # Create a Versionomy::Value v.unparse # => "1.2b3"
Versionomy does its best to preserve the original syntax when parsing a version string, so that syntax can be used when unparsing.
v1 = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') v2 = Versionomy.parse('1.2.0-beta3') v1 == b2 # => true v1.unparse # => "1.2b3" v2.unparse # => "1.2.0-beta3"
Versionomy even preserves the original syntax when changing a value:
v1 = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') v2 = Versionomy.parse('220.127.116.11b3') v1 == v2 # => true v1r = v1.release v2r = v2.release v1r == v2r # => true v1r.unparse # => "1.2" v2r.unparse # => "18.104.22.168"
You can change the settings manually when unparsing a value.
v1 = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') v1.unparse # => "1.2b3" v1.unparse(:required_fields => :tiny) # => "1.2.0b3" v1.unparse(:release_type_delim => '-', :release_type_style => :long) # => "1.2-beta3"
Versionomy also supports serialization using Marshal and YAML.
require 'yaml' v1 = Versionomy.parse('1.2b3') v1.unparse # => "1.2b3" str = v1.to_yaml v2 = YAML.load(str) v2.unparse # => "1.2b3"
Customized formats¶ ↑
Although the standard parser used by Versionomy is likely sufficient for most common syntaxes, Versionomy also lets you customize the parser for an unusual syntax. Here is an example of a customized formatter for version numbers used by a certain large software company:
year_sp_format = Versionomy.default_format.modified_copy do field(:minor) do recognize_number(:default_value_optional => true, :delimiter_regexp => '\s?sp', :default_delimiter => ' SP') end end v1 = year_sp_format.parse('2008 SP2') v1.major # => 2008 v1.minor # => 2 v1.unparse # => "2008 SP2" v1 == "2008.2" # => true v2 = v1.bump(:minor) v2.unparse # => "2008 SP3"
The above example uses a powerful DSL provided by Versionomy to create a specialized parser. In most cases, this DSL will be powerful enough to handle your parsing needs; in fact Versionomy's entire standard parser is written using the DSL. However, in case you need to parse very unusual syntax, you can also write an arbitrary parser. See the RDocs for the Versionomy::Format::Delimiter class for more information on the DSL. See the RDocs for the Versionomy::Format::Base class for information on the interface you need to implement to write an arbitrary parser.
If you create a format, you can register it with Versionomy and provide a name for it. This will allow you to reference it easily, as well as allow Versionomy to serialize versions created with your custom format. See the RDocs for the Versionomy::Format module for more information.
Versionomy::Format.register("bigcompany.versionformat", year_sp_format) v1 = Versionomy.parse("2009 SP1", "bigcompany.versionformat")
Note that versions in the year_sp_format example can be compared with versions using the standard parser. This is because the versions actually share the same schema– that is, they have the same fields. We have merely changed the parser.
Recall that it is also possible to change the schema (the fields). This is also done via a DSL (see the Versionomy::Schema module and its contents). Version numbers with different schemas cannot normally be compared, because they have different fields and different semantics. You can, however, define ways to convert version numbers from one schema to another. See the Versionomy::Conversion module and its contents for details.
Versionomy provides an example of a custom schema with its own custom format, designed to mimic the Rubygems version class. This can be accessed using the format registered under the name “rubygems”. Conversion functions are also provided between the rubygems and standard schemas.
v1 = Versionomy.parse("1.2b3") # Standard schema/format v2 = Versionomy.parse("1.2.b.4", :rubygems) # Rubygems schema/format v2.field0 # => 1 # (Rubygems fields have different names) v1a = v1.convert(:rubygems) # creates rubygems version "1.2.b.3" v2a = v2.convert(:standard) # creates standard version "1.2b4" v1 < v2 # => true # (Schemas are different but Versionomy # autoconverts if possible) v2 < v1 # => false v3 = Versionomy.parse("1.2.foo", :rubygems) # rubygems schema/format v3a = v3.convert(:standard) # raises Versionomy::Errors::ConversionError # (Value not convertable to standard) v1 < v3 # raises Versionomy::Errors::SchemaMismatchError # (Autoconversion failed) v3 > v1 # => true # (Autoconversion is attempted only on the # the second value, and this one succeeds.)
The APIs for defining schemas, formats, and conversions are rather complex. I recommend looking through the examples in the modules Versionomy::Format::Standard, Versionomy::Format::Rubygems, and Versionomy::Conversion::Rubygems for further information.
Ruby 1.9.3 or later, JRuby 1.5 or later, or Rubinius 1.0 or later.
blockenspiel 0.5.0 or later.
gem install versionomy
Known issues and limitations¶ ↑
Test coverage is still a little skimpy. It is focused on the “standard” version number format and schema, but doesn't fully exercise all the capabilities of custom formats.
Development and support¶ ↑
Documentation is available at dazuma.github.com/versionomy/rdoc
Source code is hosted on Github at github.com/dazuma/versionomy
Contributions are welcome. Fork the project on Github.
Report bugs on Github issues at github.org/dazuma/versionomy/issues
Contact the author at dazuma at gmail dot com.
Author / Credits¶ ↑
Versionomy is written by Daniel Azuma (www.daniel-azuma.com/).
Copyright 2008 Daniel Azuma.
All rights reserved.
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